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The Overlooked Epidemic: Child Abuse in Indigenous and Native American Populations


Native American child abuse

Welcome Protectors! In a nation renowned for its diversity and cultural richness, the plight of Indigenous and Native American children in facing child abuse presents a stark and troubling contrast. Despite making up only a minor fraction of the United States population, these children are disproportionately subjected to various forms of abuse, highlighting a grave issue deeply rooted in historical, social, and cultural complexities. This blog delves into the alarming statistics, the challenges in accurate data collection, and the multifaceted approach required for effectively addressing child abuse in these vulnerable communities.

 

Statistics and Prevalence


Indigenous and Native American groups in the United States make up a mere 2% of the total US population. However, 15.2% of the child abuse cases come from these groups. This means that Native or Indigenous children are 7 times more likely that other children to be subjected to criminal physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, or a combination of all of these. It has been widely recognized for many years that the American Indian and Alaska Native children have the highest rates of victimization out of any other demographic group.

 

Accurate data on the incidence and prevalence of child abuse in indigenous communities is challenging to obtain due to several different complexities and limitations. The complexity surrounding the collection of accurate data on the incidence and prevalence of child abuse in indigenous communities in the USA stems from several factors:

 

Underreporting


  • Mistrust of Authorities: There's often a deep-rooted mistrust of government and child protection services among indigenous communities, partly due to historical trauma. This mistrust can lead to reluctance in reporting abuse cases to outside authorities.

  • Community Dynamics: In some cases, the close-knit nature of these communities can lead to internal handling of issues. There's a tendency to resolve matters within the community rather than involving external agencies.

  • Fear of Consequences: Parents may fear that reporting abuse could result in their children being removed from the community by child protection services, exacerbating the reluctance to report.

 

Cultural Differences in Reporting Practices


  • Variations in Perceptions: What constitutes child abuse can vary significantly across different cultures. Practices considered abusive in mainstream society may not be viewed similarly in some indigenous cultures, and vice versa.

  • Language and Communication Barriers: Language differences and communication styles can also affect reporting. Subtleties in how child abuse and neglect are described or understood can lead to underreporting or misreporting.

 

Limited Interaction with Mainstream Child Protection Services


  • Geographical Isolation: Many indigenous communities are located in remote areas, making access to mainstream child protection services challenging.

  • Jurisdictional Issues: The complex jurisdictional landscape in tribal lands can hinder the involvement of state and federal child protection agencies, leading to gaps in service provision and reporting.

 

Higher Risk of Abuse and Neglect


  • Historical Trauma: The legacy of colonization, including forced removal from land, cultural suppression, and residential school abuses, has had a profound intergenerational impact on indigenous families, contributing to a range of social issues including child abuse.

  • Socioeconomic Disadvantages: Many indigenous communities face high levels of poverty, unemployment, and inadequate access to essential services. These factors are known to increase the risk of child abuse and neglect.

  • Ongoing Systemic Challenges: Discrimination, lack of adequate housing, and limited access to quality education and healthcare further exacerbate the risks faced by indigenous children.

 

Research Limitations and Gaps


Despite the recognized higher risk, there's a significant gap in comprehensive research focused specifically on child abuse within indigenous communities. Much of the available data is either outdated or too generalized, failing to capture the nuances of individual tribal communities. New research methodologies that are culturally sensitive and community-involved are required to gain a clearer understanding of the true extent and nature of child abuse in these communities.

 

Understanding and addressing child abuse in indigenous communities demands an approach that acknowledges these unique challenges and barriers. It requires culturally competent practices, building trust with the communities, and ensuring that child protection measures are respectful of indigenous culture and sovereignty.

 

Recognition

 

Recognizing child abuse in indigenous communities is a complex issue that requires a nuanced understanding of cultural sensitivities, awareness of unique challenges, and dedicated training and awareness programs. This multi-faceted approach is essential for effectively identifying and addressing child abuse in these communities while respecting their cultural integrity.

 

Cultural Sensitivity in Recognition


Cultural sensitivity is paramount in recognizing child abuse within indigenous communities. This entails a deep understanding and respect for indigenous cultures, traditions, and perspectives, especially regarding family and child-rearing practices. Indigenous communities have their own set of values, beliefs, and social norms, which can differ significantly from those of mainstream society. For instance, certain disciplinary practices or family dynamics might be misinterpreted as abusive by outsiders but are understood differently within the community. Conversely, certain behaviors that might not raise concerns in a non-indigenous context could be indicative of abuse in an indigenous setting.

 

The key to culturally sensitive recognition of child abuse is to approach these communities not with preconceived notions but with a willingness to learn and understand their unique cultural contexts. This includes understanding the historical and ongoing impacts of colonization, which have contributed to trauma and distrust towards external authorities. Therefore, recognizing child abuse must be done in a way that does not further harm or alienate these communities.

 

Challenges in Recognition


Several challenges emerge when recognizing child abuse in indigenous communities, primarily due to cultural variations and historical factors. One significant challenge is the difference in what constitutes abuse or neglect across cultures. For instance, in some indigenous cultures, communal child-rearing practices are common, and what might be perceived as neglect in a Western context is part of normal upbringing in these communities.

 

Another major challenge is the pervasive mistrust of authorities, a consequence of historical mistreatment and injustices, such as the forced assimilation policies of the past. This mistrust can lead to reluctance in reporting suspected cases of abuse, as there is a fear that this could result in children being removed from their families and communities. This fear is not unfounded, as indigenous children have historically been disproportionately represented in the foster care system.

 

Additionally, there are challenges related to the practical aspects of recognition. In many remote or rural indigenous communities, there is limited access to services and resources, making it difficult to identify and address child abuse. Communication barriers, both linguistic and cultural, further complicate the issue.

 

Training and Awareness


Addressing these challenges requires a concerted effort in training and awareness. Both community members and professionals working with indigenous communities need to be educated on the signs of child abuse within the cultural context of these communities.

 

For community members, awareness programs can empower them to recognize and respond to abuse in ways that are culturally appropriate and effective. These programs can be developed in collaboration with community leaders and elders, ensuring that they are respectful of cultural norms and values. Community-based training can also focus on strengthening families and providing support to parents, which can be a preventive measure against child abuse.

 

For professionals, including social workers, healthcare providers, educators, and law enforcement, training should focus on cultural competency. This means not only being aware of the cultural differences but also understanding the historical context that has shaped the current dynamics in these communities. Professionals need to learn how to recognize the signs of abuse in a culturally sensitive manner and how to engage with community members respectfully and effectively.

 

Such training should also include education on the legal and jurisdictional complexities involved in working with indigenous communities. Understanding tribal sovereignty and the rights of these communities is crucial for any professional working in this field.

 

Collaboration and Community Involvement


Recognizing child abuse in indigenous communities cannot be done in isolation. It requires collaboration between various stakeholders, including tribal leaders, child welfare agencies, law enforcement, healthcare providers, and educators. Community involvement is key; any effort to identify and address child abuse should be done with, not for, the community.

 

Community involvement ensures that the strategies and practices used are culturally relevant and accepted. It also helps build trust between the community and external agencies or professionals. Collaborative efforts can lead to the development of community-specific protocols for recognizing and reporting child abuse, which can be more effective than applying generic protocols.

 

Prevention and Intervention

 

Prevention and intervention strategies for addressing child abuse in indigenous communities must be culturally sensitive and adapted to fit the unique needs and traditions of these communities. The effectiveness of such strategies hinges on the integration of traditional practices and values, the empowerment of communities through local approaches, and strong collaboration among tribal, state, and federal agencies. Each of these elements plays a crucial role in developing and implementing successful programs.

 

Culturally Adapted Programs


Culturally adapted programs are essential for prevention and intervention efforts to be effective in indigenous communities. These programs should be designed to align with the cultural values, beliefs, and practices of the community. This approach not only ensures the relevance and acceptance of the programs but also honors and strengthens the community's cultural heritage.

 

  • Integration of Traditional Practices and Values: Integrating traditional practices into child welfare programs can include using indigenous languages, customs, and healing practices. For example, incorporating traditional storytelling can be a powerful tool for teaching children about cultural values and norms, including how to treat others respectfully.

  • Collaboration with Tribal Leaders and Elders: Tribal leaders and elders hold a wealth of knowledge and authority in their communities. Their involvement in designing and implementing prevention and intervention programs ensures that these initiatives are grounded in the community's cultural context. Elders, in particular, can play a vital role in mentoring parents and youth, providing guidance based on traditional wisdom.

  • Respecting Cultural Differences in Family Structures: It's essential to recognize and respect the variations in family structures and child-rearing practices among different indigenous communities. What might be considered a norm in one community could be different in another. Programs must be flexible and adaptable to these differences.

 

Community-Based Approaches


Empowering communities through local, community-based approaches is another crucial element of effective prevention and intervention strategies. These approaches are grounded in the principle that communities themselves are best positioned to identify their needs and solutions.

 

  • Education Programs: Educating the community about the signs and consequences of child abuse, as well as ways to prevent it, is vital. These programs can be delivered through schools, community centers, and local events, ensuring wide reach and accessibility.

  • Support for Parents: Parenting programs that provide support, education, and resources to parents can be particularly effective. These programs can cover a range of topics from basic child care to dealing with the stresses of parenting. The key is to deliver these programs in a way that is non-judgmental and supportive, offering practical solutions that align with the community's values.

  • Youth Programs: Engaging youth directly through programs that build self-esteem, teach life skills, and offer recreational and educational activities can help prevent abuse. Such programs can also provide a safe space for youth to discuss issues and seek help if needed.

 

Interagency Collaboration


Collaboration between tribal, state, and federal agencies ensures a coordinated and comprehensive approach to prevention and intervention. This collaborative effort respects tribal sovereignty while providing the necessary resources and support.

 

  • Respecting Tribal Sovereignty: Any collaborative effort must start with a respect for tribal sovereignty. This means recognizing the authority of tribal governments over child welfare matters within their communities and involving them as equal partners in all stages of program development and implementation.

  • Sharing Resources and Expertise: State and federal agencies can provide resources and expertise that may be lacking at the tribal level. This can include funding, training for child welfare workers, and access to specialized services such as mental health care.

  • Developing Joint Protocols: Developing joint protocols for handling cases of child abuse can help ensure a seamless and effective response that is respectful of tribal customs and legal structures. This includes clear communication channels and shared responsibilities among all parties involved.

  • Cultural Competency Training: For state and federal agencies working with indigenous communities, cultural competency training is essential. This training should focus on understanding the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the communities they serve.

 

Challenges and Considerations


While these strategies are critical, they also come with challenges. Ensuring cultural sensitivity in prevention and intervention programs is not always straightforward, and missteps can lead to mistrust and reduced effectiveness. Additionally, interagency collaboration can be complicated by bureaucratic hurdles, differences in policies and procedures, and varying levels of commitment to respecting tribal sovereignty.

 

Resource Challenges

 

Resource challenges in indigenous communities, particularly in addressing child abuse, are a significant concern that requires urgent attention. The lack of resources is multi-faceted, affecting various aspects of child welfare and protection services. These limitations are not only a barrier to effectively responding to child abuse cases but also to preventing them. Understanding the scope of these challenges is the first step toward addressing them.

 

Limited Resources


Indigenous communities frequently encounter substantial resource limitations, impacting their ability to tackle child abuse effectively. These limitations manifest in several ways:

 

  • Lack of Funding: One of the most pressing issues is the lack of adequate funding. Child welfare services in these communities are often underfunded, leading to inadequate facilities, services, and support systems. This financial constraint limits the capacity of these communities to develop and maintain effective child protection and welfare programs.

  • Insufficient Child Welfare Services: Due to limited funding and resources, many indigenous communities have insufficient child welfare services. This includes a lack of emergency intervention services, long-term care options, and preventive services. The services that do exist may be stretched thin, unable to meet the needs of the community adequately.

  • Shortage of Trained Professionals: There is a notable shortage of professionals trained in child welfare and protection in indigenous communities. This includes social workers, counselors, psychologists, and legal professionals specializing in child welfare law. The shortage is often exacerbated by the remote locations of many communities, making it challenging to attract and retain qualified staff.

  • Infrastructure Challenges: Many indigenous communities face basic infrastructure challenges, such as inadequate office space for child welfare services, limited transportation for outreach, and insufficient technological resources for managing cases and maintaining records.

 

Need for Specialized Services


The complexity of child abuse cases in indigenous communities often requires specialized services, which are currently insufficient or absent.

 

  • Trauma-Informed Care: Given the historical and ongoing trauma experienced by many indigenous communities, there is a pressing need for trauma-informed care. This approach acknowledges the widespread impact of trauma and integrates this understanding into all aspects of service delivery. It is particularly crucial for children who have experienced or are at risk of abuse.

  • Mental Health Services: Mental health challenges can both be a consequence and a contributing factor of child abuse. The availability of culturally sensitive mental health services in indigenous communities is critical. These services must be accessible and tailored to the specific needs and cultural practices of the community.

  • Substance Abuse Support: Substance abuse is a significant issue in many indigenous communities and is often linked to cases of child abuse. Services that provide support for substance abuse, including treatment programs and family support, are essential. These services need to be integrated with child welfare programs to provide a holistic approach to addressing child abuse.

  • Culturally Specific Services: Services need to be culturally specific and sensitive to the values, traditions, and norms of the indigenous community they serve. This includes incorporating traditional healing practices and community-based approaches into mainstream service provision.

 

Advocacy for Resources


Advocacy is a critical tool in addressing the resource challenges faced by indigenous communities in the context of child abuse.

 

  • Raising Awareness: Advocacy efforts are needed to raise awareness about the unique challenges faced by indigenous communities in addressing child abuse. This awareness is crucial among policymakers, funders, and the general public. It helps to build a broader understanding of the needs and challenges and can lead to increased support and resources.

  • Securing More Funding: Advocates play a vital role in securing more funding for child welfare services in indigenous communities. This can involve lobbying government agencies, applying for grants, and engaging with private donors and organizations. Funding is needed not just for direct services but also for training, infrastructure development, and research.

  • Training and Support: Advocacy is also necessary to secure training and support for community-based solutions. This includes training for local community members in child welfare and protection, support for community-led initiatives, and resources for developing local infrastructure.

  • Policy Advocacy: Advocates can influence policies that directly impact child welfare in indigenous communities. This includes advocating for policies that increase funding, improve service delivery, and ensure that the unique needs of these communities are considered in broader child welfare policies.

 

Reporting and Investigation of Abuse

 

Reporting concerns of child abuse in indigenous communities can be complex due to the interplay of tribal, state, and federal jurisdictions. Several federal and state statutes provide mechanisms for reporting abuse to authorities outside of the tribal government when necessary. These statutes are designed to ensure that cases are properly investigated and prosecuted, while also respecting tribal sovereignty and jurisdiction.

 

Federal Statutes


  • Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) of 1978: While primarily focused on child custody issues, the ICWA sets standards for the placement of Native American children in foster or adoptive homes and gives tribal governments a strong voice in child custody proceedings. It also aims to protect the best interests of Native American children and promote the stability and security of Native American tribes and families.

  • Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010: This Act enhances the ability of tribal governments to prosecute and punish criminals, strengthens tribal courts and police departments, and gives tribes greater authority to prosecute and punish criminal offenders. It allows for greater federal assistance in the investigation and prosecution of crimes, including child abuse, that occur on tribal lands.

  • Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013: This Act provides specific provisions to address domestic violence and sexual assault in tribal communities. It recognizes the authority of tribes to exercise criminal jurisdiction over non-Native Americans who commit crimes on tribal lands, which can include child abuse or neglect cases linked to domestic violence situations.

  • Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990: This Act provides federal support for child abuse victims and mandates reporting requirements for federal law enforcement officials. It requires these officials to report child abuse cases, including those on tribal lands, to local or state child protective services.

 

State Statutes


Each state in the U.S. has its own set of laws regarding child abuse reporting. Generally, these statutes:

 

  • Mandate Reporting: Most states have mandatory reporting laws requiring certain professionals (like teachers, doctors, social workers) to report suspicions of child abuse to state authorities. These laws apply to everyone, including those working within indigenous communities.

  • Allow Anonymous Reporting: Some states allow anonymous reporting of child abuse to state authorities, which can be important in small, close-knit communities where fear of retaliation might prevent reporting.

  • Cross-Jurisdictional Cooperation: Some states have laws or agreements in place to facilitate cooperation and communication between state child protective services and tribal authorities.

 

Challenges and Considerations


While these statutes provide mechanisms for reporting child abuse outside of tribal governments, several challenges and considerations remain:

 

  • Jurisdictional Complexities: The overlap of tribal, state, and federal jurisdictions can complicate the investigation and prosecution of child abuse cases. It's essential to determine which authority has jurisdiction in a particular case, which can depend on factors like the location of the crime, the tribal membership of the victim or perpetrator, and the nature of the crime.

  • Cultural Sensitivity and Sovereignty: Any intervention by state or federal authorities in child abuse cases within tribal communities must be handled with cultural sensitivity and respect for tribal sovereignty. This requires collaboration and communication between tribal, state, and federal authorities.

  • Building Trust: There is often a historical mistrust of external authorities in indigenous communities. Building trust is crucial for effective reporting and investigation of child abuse cases.

 

While federal and state statutes exist to allow reporting of child abuse concerns to authorities outside of tribal governments, effectively addressing these cases requires navigating complex jurisdictional landscapes, respecting tribal sovereignty, and ensuring culturally sensitive approaches.

 

Conclusion


Navigating the intricate landscape of child abuse in Indigenous and Native American communities necessitates a concerted effort that goes beyond mere policy implementation. It calls for a deep understanding of cultural nuances, an empathetic approach towards historical grievances, and robust collaboration across jurisdictional boundaries. Our commitment to these communities must be steadfast, as we strive to build trust, ensure culturally competent interventions, and advocate for the resources and support that can pave the way for a safer, more just future for these children.

 

As of January 2024, there are more than 570 federally recognized indigenous groups within the United States. Here is a list of those groups:


  • Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma

  • Agdaagux Tribe of King Cove

  • Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, California

  • Ak-Chin Indian Community

  • Akiachak Native Community

  • Akiak Native Community

  • Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas

  • Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town

  • Alatna Village

  • Algaaciq Native Village (St. Mary’s)

  • Allakaket Village

  • Alturas Indian Rancheria, California

  • Alutiiq Tribe of Old Harbor

  • Angoon Community Association

  • Anvik Village

  • Apache Tribe of Oklahoma

  • Arctic Village

  • Asa’carsarmiut Tribe

  • Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana

  • Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians, California

  • Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin

  • Bay Mills Indian Community, Michigan

  • Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria, California Beaver Village Berry Creek Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California Big Lagoon Rancheria, California

  • Big Pine Paiute Tribe of the Owens Valley

  • Big Sandy Rancheria of Western Mono Indians of California

  • Big Valley Band of Pomo Indians of the Big Valley Rancheria, California

  • Birch Creek Tribe

  • Bishop Paiute Tribe

  • Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation of Montana

  • Blue Lake Rancheria, California

  • Bridgeport Indian Colony

  • Buena Vista Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians of California

  • Burns Paiute Tribe

  • Cabazon Band of Cahuilla Indians (previously listed as Cabazon Band of Mission Indians, California)

  • Cachil DeHe Band of Wintun Indians of the Colusa Indian Community of the Colusa Rancheria, California

  • Caddo Nation of Oklahoma

  • Cahto Tribe of the Laytonville Rancheria

  • Cahuilla Band of Indians

  • California Valley Miwok Tribe, California

  • Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Campo Indian Reservation, California Capitan Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of California (Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians of the Barona Reservation, California; Viejas (Baron Long) Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians of the Viejas Reservation, California)

  • Catawba Indian Nation

  • Cayuga Nation

  • Cedarville Rancheria, California

  • Central Council of the Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes

  • Chalkyitsik Village

  • Cheesh-Na Tribe

  • Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation, California

  • Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, California

  • Cherokee Nation

  • Chevak Native Village

  • Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, Oklahoma

  • Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe of the Cheyenne River Reservation, South Dakota

  • Chickahominy Indian Tribe

  • Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division

  • Chickaloon Native Village

  • The Chickasaw Nation

  • Chicken Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians of California

  • Chignik Bay Tribal Council

  • Chignik Lake Village

  • Chilkat Indian Village (Klukwan)

  • Chilkoot Indian Association (Haines)

  • Chinik Eskimo Community (Golovin)

  • Chippewa Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy’s Reservation, Montana

  • Chitimacha Tribe of Louisiana

  • The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma

  • Chuloonawick Native Village

  • Circle Native Community

  • Citizen Potawatomi Nation, Oklahoma

  • Cloverdale Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California

  • Cocopah Tribe of Arizona

  • Coeur D’Alene Tribe

  • Cold Springs Rancheria of Mono Indians of California

  • Colorado River Indian Tribes of the Colorado River Indian Reservation, Arizona and California

  • Comanche Nation, Oklahoma

  • Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation

  • Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

  • Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians of Oregon

  • Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation

  • Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation

  • Confederated Tribes of the Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw Indians

  • Confederated Tribes of the Goshute Reservation, Nevada and Utah

  • Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon

  • Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  • Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon

  • Coquille Indian Tribe

  • Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana

  • Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians

  • Cowlitz Indian Tribe

  • Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians of California

  • Craig Tribal Association

  • Crow Creek Sioux Tribe of the Crow Creek Reservation, South Dakota

  • Crow Tribe of Montana

  • Curyung Tribal Council

  • Delaware Nation, Oklahoma

  • Delaware Tribe of Indians

  • Douglas Indian Association

  • Dry Creek Rancheria Band of Pomo Indians, California

  • Duckwater Shoshone Tribe of the Duckwater Reservation, Nevada

  • Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians

  • Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma

  • Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming

  • Egegik Village

  • Eklutna Native Village

  • Elem Indian Colony of Pomo Indians of the Sulphur Bank Rancheria, California

  • Elk Valley Rancheria, California

  • Ely Shoshone Tribe of Nevada

  • Emmonak Village

  • Enterprise Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California

  • Evansville Village (also known as Bettles Field)

  • Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians, California

  • Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria, California

  • Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe of South Dakota

  • Forest County Potawatomi Community, Wisconsin

  • Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Reservation of Montana

  • Fort Bidwell Indian Community of the Fort Bidwell Reservation of California

  • Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute Indians of the Fort Independence Reservation, California

  • Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes of the Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation, Nevada and Oregon

  • Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation, Arizona

  • Fort Mojave Indian Tribe of Arizona, California & Nevada

  • Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma

  • Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona

  • Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, Michigan

  • Greenville Rancheria

  • Grindstone Indian Rancheria of Wintun-Wailaki Indians of California

  • Guidiville Rancheria of California

  • Gulkana Village Council

  • Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake, California

  • Hannahville Indian Community, Michigan

  • Havasupai Tribe of the Havasupai Reservation, Arizona

  • Healy Lake Village

  • Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin

  • Hoh Indian Tribe

  • Holy Cross Tribe

  • Hoonah Indian Association

  • Hoopa Valley Tribe, California

  • Hopi Tribe of Arizona

  • Hopland Band of Pomo Indians, California

  • Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians

  • Hualapai Indian Tribe of the Hualapai Indian Reservation, Arizona

  • Hughes Village

  • Huslia Village

  • Hydaburg Cooperative Association

  • Igiugig Village

  • Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel, California

  • Inaja Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Inaja and Cosmit Reservation, California

  • Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope

  • Ione Band of Miwok Indians of California

  • Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska

  • Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma

  • Iqugmiut Traditional Council

  • Ivanof Bay Tribe

  • Jackson Band of Miwuk Indians

  • Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe

  • Jamul Indian Village of California

  • Jena Band of Choctaw Indians

  • Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico

  • Kaguyak Village

  • Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians of the Kaibab Indian Reservation, Arizona

  • Kaktovik Village (also known as Barter Island)

  • Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation

  • Karuk Tribe

  • Kashia Band of Pomo Indians of the Stewarts Point Rancheria, California

  • Kasigluk Traditional Elders Council

  • Kaw Nation, Oklahoma

  • Kenaitze Indian Tribe

  • Ketchikan Indian Community

  • Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, Michigan

  • Kialegee Tribal Town

  • Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas

  • Kickapoo Tribe of Indians of the Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas

  • Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma

  • King Island Native Community

  • King Salmon Tribe

  • Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma

  • Klamath Tribes

  • Klawock Cooperative Association

  • Kletsel Dehe Wintun Nation of the Cortina Rancheria (previously listed as Kletsel Dehe Band of Wintun Indians)

  • Knik Tribe

  • Koi Nation of Northern California

  • Kokhanok Village

  • Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

  • Koyukuk Native Village

  • La Jolla Band of Luiseno Indians, California

  • La Posta Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the La Posta Indian Reservation, California

  • Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin

  • Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of the Lac du Flambeau Reservation of Wisconsin

  • Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Michigan

  • Las Vegas Tribe of Paiute Indians of the Las Vegas Indian Colony, Nevada

  • Levelock Village

  • Lime Village

  • Little River Band of Ottawa Indians, Michigan

  • Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana

  • Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, Michigan

  • Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe

  • Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians, California

  • Louden Tribe (previously listed as Galena Village (also known as Louden Village))

  • Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock Indian Colony, Nevada

  • Lower Brule Sioux Tribe of the Lower Brule Reservation, South Dakota

  • Lower Elwha Tribal Community

  • Lower Sioux Indian Community in the State of Minnesota

  • Lummi Tribe of the Lummi Reservation

  • Lytton Rancheria of California

  • Makah Indian Tribe of the Makah Indian Reservation

  • Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria, California

  • Manley Hot Springs Village

  • Manokotak Village

  • Manzanita Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Manzanita Reservation, California

  • Mashantucket Pequot Indian Tribe

  • Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe

  • Match-e-be-nash-she-wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians of Michigan

  • McGrath Native Village

  • Mechoopda Indian Tribe of Chico Rancheria, California

  • Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin

  • Mentasta Traditional Council

  • Mesa Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Mesa Grande Reservation, California

  • Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico

  • Metlakatla Indian Community, Annette Island Reserve

  • Mi’kmaq Nation (Previously listed as Aroostook Band of Micmacs)

  • Miami Tribe of Oklahoma

  • Miccosukee Tribe of Indians

  • Middletown Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California

  • Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Minnesota (Six component reservations: Bois Forte Band (Nett Lake); Fond du Lac Band; Grand Portage Band; Leech Lake Band; Mille Lacs Band; White Earth Band)

  • Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians

  • Moapa Band of Paiute Indians of the Moapa River Indian Reservation, Nevada

  • Modoc Nation

  • Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut

  • Monacan Indian Nation

  • Mooretown Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California

  • Morongo Band of Mission Indians, California

  • Muckleshoot Indian Tribe

  • The Muscogee (Creek) Nation

  • Naknek Native Village

  • Nansemond Indian Nation

  • Narragansett Indian Tribe

  • Native Village of Afognak

  • Native Village of Akhiok

  • Native Village of Akutan

  • Native Village of Aleknagik

  • Native Village of Ambler

  • Native Village of Atka

  • Native Village of Atqasuk

  • Native Village of Barrow Inupiat Traditional Government

  • Native Village of Belkofski

  • Native Village of Brevig Mission

  • Native Village of Buckland

  • Native Village of Cantwell

  • Native Village of Chenega (also known as Chanega)

  • Native Village of Chignik Lagoon

  • Native Village of Chitina

  • Native Village of Chuathbaluk (Russian Mission, Kuskokwim)

  • Native Village of Council

  • Native Village of Deering

  • Native Village of Diomede (also known as Inalik)

  • Native Village of Eagle

  • Native Village of Eek

  • Native Village of Ekuk

  • Native Village of Ekwok

  • Native Village of Elim

  • Native Village of Eyak (Cordova)

  • Native Village of False Pass

  • Native Village of Fort Yukon

  • Native Village of Gakona

  • Native Village of Gambell

  • Native Village of Georgetown

  • Native Village of Goodnews Bay

  • Native Village of Hamilton

  • Native Village of Hooper Bay

  • Native Village of Kanatak

  • Native Village of Karluk

  • Native Village of Kiana

  • Native Village of Kipnuk

  • Native Village of Kivalina

  • Native Village of Kluti Kaah (also known as Copper Center)

  • Native Village of Kobuk

  • Native Village of Kongiganak

  • Native Village of Kotzebue

  • Native Village of Koyuk

  • Native Village of Kwigillingok

  • Native Village of Kwinhagak (also known as Quinhagak)

  • Native Village of Larsen Bay

  • Native Village of Marshall (also known as Fortuna Ledge)

  • Native Village of Mary’s Igloo

  • Native Village of Mekoryuk

  • Native Village of Minto

  • Native Village of Nanwalek (also known as English Bay)

  • Native Village of Napaimute

  • Native Village of Napakiak

  • Native Village of Napaskiak

  • Native Village of Nelson Lagoon

  • Native Village of Nightmute

  • Native Village of Nikolski

  • Native Village of Noatak

  • Native Village of Nuiqsut (also known as Nooiksut)

  • Native Village of Nunam Iqua

  • Native Village of Nunapitchuk

  • Native Village of Ouzinkie

  • Native Village of Paimiut

  • Native Village of Perryville

  • Native Village of Pilot Point

  • Native Village of Point Hope

  • Native Village of Point Lay

  • Native Village of Port Graham

  • Native Village of Port Heiden

  • Native Village of Port Lions

  • Native Village of Ruby

  • Native Village of Saint Michael

  • Native Village of Savoonga

  • Native Village of Scammon Bay

  • Native Village of Selawik

  • Native Village of Shaktoolik

  • Native Village of Shishmaref

  • Native Village of Shungnak

  • Native Village of Stevens

  • Native Village of Tanacross

  • Native Village of Tanana

  • Native Village of Tatitlek

  • Native Village of Tazlina

  • Native Village of Teller

  • Native Village of Tetlin

  • Native Village of Tuntutuliak

  • Native Village of Tununak

  • Native Village of Tyonek

  • Native Village of Unalakleet

  • Native Village of Unga

  • Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government (Arctic Village and Village of Venetie)

  • Native Village of Wales

  • Native Village of White Mountain

  • Navajo Nation, Arizona, New Mexico, & Utah

  • Nenana Native Association

  • New Koliganek Village Council

  • New Stuyahok Village

  • Newhalen Village

  • Newtok Village

  • Nez Perce Tribe

  • Nikolai Village

  • Ninilchik Village

  • Nisqually Indian Tribe

  • Nome Eskimo Community

  • Nondalton Village

  • Nooksack Indian Tribe

  • Noorvik Native Community

  • Northern Arapaho Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming

  • Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana

  • Northfork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California

  • Northway Village

  • Northwestern Band of the Shoshone Nation

  • Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi, Michigan

  • Nulato Village

  • Nunakauyarmiut Tribe

  • Oglala Sioux Tribe

  • Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico

  • Omaha Tribe of Nebraska

  • Oneida Indian Nation

  • Oneida Nation

  • Onondaga Nation

  • Organized Village of Grayling (also known as Holikachuk)

  • Organized Village of Kake

  • Organized Village of Kasaan

  • Organized Village of Kwethluk

  • Organized Village of Saxman

  • Orutsararmiut Traditional Native Council

  • The Osage Nation

  • Oscarville Traditional Village

  • Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians, Oklahoma

  • Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma

  • Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (Cedar Band of Paiutes, Kanosh Band of Paiutes, Koosharem Band of Paiutes, Indian Peaks Band of Paiutes, and Shivwits Band of Paiutes) Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of the Fallon Reservation and Colony, Nevada

  • Pala Band of Mission Indians

  • Pamunkey Indian Tribe

  • Pascua Yaqui Tribe of Arizona

  • Paskenta Band of Nomlaki Indians of California

  • Passamaquoddy Tribe

  • Pauloff Harbor Village

  • Pauma Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Pauma & Yuima Reservation, California

  • Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma

  • Pechanga Band of Indians (previously listed as Pechanga Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Pechanga Reservation, California)

  • Pedro Bay Village

  • Penobscot Nation

  • Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma

  • Petersburg Indian Association

  • Picayune Rancheria of Chukchansi Indians of California

  • Pilot Station Traditional Village

  • Pinoleville Pomo Nation, California

  • Pit River Tribe, California (Includes XL Ranch, Big Bend, Likely, Lookout, Montgomery Creek, and Roaring Creek Rancherias

  • Pitka’s Point Traditional Council

  • Platinum Traditional Village

  • Poarch Band of Creek Indians

  • Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, Michigan and Indiana

  • Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma

  • Ponca Tribe of Nebraska

  • Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe

  • Portage Creek Village (also known as Ohgsenakale)

  • Pribilof Islands Aleut Communities of St. Paul & St. George Islands (Saint George Island and Saint Paul Island)

  • Potter Valley Tribe, California

  • Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation

  • Prairie Island Indian Community in the State of Minnesota

  • Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Cochiti, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Isleta, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Jemez, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Laguna, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Nambe, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Picuris, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Pojoaque, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of San Felipe, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of San Ildefonso, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Sandia, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Tesuque, New Mexico

  • Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico

  • Puyallup Tribe of the Puyallup Reservation

  • Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe of the Pyramid Lake Reservation, Nevada

  • Qagan Tayagungin Tribe of Sand Point

  • Qawalangin Tribe of Unalaska

  • Quapaw Nation

  • Quartz Valley Indian Community of the Quartz Valley Reservation of California

  • Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation, California & Arizona

  • Quileute Tribe of the Quileute Reservation

  • Quinault Indian Nation

  • Ramona Band of Cahuilla, California

  • Rampart Village

  • Rancheria, California

  • Rappahannock Tribe, Inc.

  • Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin

  • Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota

  • Redding Rancheria, California

  • Redwood Valley or Little River Band of Pomo Indians of the Redwood Valley Rancheria, California

  • Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, Nevada

  • Resighini Rancheria, California

  • Rincon Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of Rincon Reservation, California Robinson Rancheria

  • Rosebud Sioux Tribe of the Rosebud Indian Reservation, South Dakota

  • Round Valley Indian Tribes, Round Valley Reservation, California

  • Sac & Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska

  • Sac & Fox Nation, Oklahoma

  • Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

  • Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan

  • Saint George Island

  • Saint Paul Island

  • Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe

  • Salamatof Tribe

  • Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona

  • Samish Indian Nation

  • San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona

  • San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe of Arizona

  • San Pasqual Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of California

  • Santa Rosa Band of Cahuilla Indians, California

  • Santa Rosa Indian Community of the Santa Rosa Rancheria, California

  • Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Mission Indians of the Santa Ynez Reservation, California

  • Santee Sioux Nation, Nebraska

  • Santo Domingo Pueblo

  • Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe

  • Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Michigan

  • Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians of California

  • Seldovia Village Tribe

  • Seminole Tribe of Florida

  • The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma

  • Seneca Nation of Indians

  • Seneca-Cayuga Nation

  • Shageluk Native Village

  • Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community of Minnesota

  • Shawnee Tribe

  • Sherwood Valley Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California

  • Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians, Shingle Springs Rancheria (Verona Tract), California

  • Shinnecock Indian Nation

  • Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation

  • Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation

  • Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada

  • Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Reservation, South Dakota

  • Sitka Tribe of Alaska

  • Skagway Village

  • Skokomish Indian Tribe

  • Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians of Utah

  • Snoqualmie Indian Tribe

  • Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians, California

  • Sokaogon Chippewa Community, Wisconsin

  • South Naknek Village

  • Southern Ute Indian Tribe of the Southern Ute Reservation, Colorado

  • Spirit Lake Tribe, North Dakota

  • Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation

  • Squaxin Island Tribe of the Squaxin Island Reservation

  • St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin

  • Standing Rock Sioux Tribe of North & South Dakota

  • Stebbins Community Association

  • Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians of Washington

  • Stockbridge Munsee Community, Wisconsin

  • Summit Lake Paiute Tribe of Nevada

  • Sun’aq Tribe of Kodiak

  • Suquamish Indian Tribe of the Port Madison Reservation

  • Susanville Indian Rancheria, California

  • Swinomish Indian Tribal Community

  • Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation

  • Table Mountain Rancheria

  • Takotna Village

  • Tangirnaq Native Village

  • Tejon Indian Tribe

  • Telida Village

  • Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians of Nevada (Four constituent bands: Battle

  • Mountain Band; Elko Band; South Fork Band; and Wells Band)

  • Thlopthlocco Tribal Town

  • Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota

  • Timbisha Shoshone Tribe

  • Tohono O’odham Nation of Arizona

  • Tolowa Dee-ni’ Nation

  • Tonawanda Band of Seneca

  • Tonkawa Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma

  • Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona

  • Torres Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians, California

  • Traditional Village of Togiak

  • Tulalip Tribes of Washington

  • Tule River Indian Tribe of the Tule River Reservation, California

  • Tuluksak Native Community

  • Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe

  • Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria of California

  • Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians of North Dakota

  • Tuscarora Nation

  • Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California

  • Twin Hills Village

  • Ugashik Village

  • Umkumiut Native Village

  • United Auburn Indian Community of the Auburn Rancheria of California

  • United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma

  • Upper Mattaponi Tribe

  • Upper Sioux Community, Minnesota

  • Upper Skagit Indian Tribe

  • Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation, Utah

  • Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

  • Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation, California

  • Village of Alakanuk

  • Village of Anaktuvuk Pass

  • Village of Aniak

  • Village of Atmautluak

  • Village of Bill Moore’s Slough

  • Village of Chefornak

  • Village of Clarks Point

  • Village of Crooked Creek

  • Village of Dot Lake

  • Village of Iliamna

  • Village of Kalskag

  • Village of Kaltag

  • Village of Kotlik

  • Village of Lower Kalskag

  • Village of Ohogamiut

  • Village of Red Devil

  • Village of Sleetmute

  • Village of Solomon

  • Village of Stony River

  • Village of Venetie

  • Village of Wainwright

  • Walker River Paiute Tribe of the Walker River Reservation, Nevada

  • Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah)

  • Washoe Tribe of Nevada & California (Carson Colony, Dresslerville Colony, Woodfords Community, Stewart Community, & Washoe Ranches)

  • White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona

  • Wichita and Affiliated Tribes (Wichita, Keechi, Waco, & Tawakonie), Oklahoma

  • Wilton Rancheria, California

  • Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska

  • Winnemucca Indian Colony of Nevada

  • Wiyot Tribe, California

  • Wrangell Cooperative Association

  • Wyandotte Nation

  • Yakutat Tlingit Tribe

  • Yankton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota

  • Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, Arizona

  • Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe

  • Yerington Paiute Tribe of the Yerington Colony & Campbell Ranch, Nevada

  • Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation, California

  • Yomba Shoshone Tribe of the Yomba Reservation, Nevada

  • Ysleta del Sur Pueblo

  • Yuhaaviatam of San Manuel Nation (previously listed as San Manuel Band of Mission Indians, California)

  • Yupiit of Andreafski

  • Yurok Tribe of the Yurok Reservation, California

  • Zuni Tribe of the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico

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